Section 29-30.1 Outdoor lighting regulations.

    (a)    Purpose and intent.  The purpose of this section is to enhance the attractiveness and livability of the community for its citizens, both during the day and at night without compromising the safety, security, and wellbeing of persons engaged in outdoor nighttime activities.  It is the intent of this section to control the obtrusive aspects of excessive and careless outdoor lighting usage while preserving, protecting, and enhancing the lawful nighttime use and enjoyment of property.  Intended outcomes include:

    (1)    Insuring that parking areas, public gathering places, approaches to buildings, and other areas active at night have adequate outdoor illumination.

    (2)    Minimizing the adverse impacts on public safety and comfort due to excessive glare.  

    (3)    Providing minimum and maximum light levels and establishing standards of lighting uniformity to enhance night vision and security.  

    (4)    Minimizing spillage of light on adjacent or nearby property.  

    (5)    Minimizing the effects of skyglow.  

    (6)    Encouraging energy conservation through the use of efficient lighting technologies.

    (b)    Definitions and interpretation.  

    (1)    The following definitions apply to this section:

        Decorative lighting.  Lights that have an aesthetic purpose to illuminate the architectural features of a building and produce generally low levels of light (100 watts, 1,800 lumens per light), including but not limited to “gooseneck” lights, sconce lights, recessed lighting in roof soffits, spot lighting, and silhouette lights.

         Color rendering.  General expression for the effect of a light source on the color appearance of objects in conscious or subconscious comparison with their color appearance under a reference light source.  

         Display area.  Outdoor locations where nighttime sales occur and where accurate color perception by customers is needed, for example automobile sales.

         Fixtures (Figure 29.30.1):

        a.     Full cutoff:  Zero intensity at or above horizontal (90 degrees above nadir) and limited to a value not exceeding 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80 degrees.

        b.     Cutoff:  Intensity at or above 90 degrees (horizontal) no more than 2.5% of lamp lumens and no more than 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80 degrees.

    c.     Semi-cutoff:  Intensity at or above 90 degrees (horizontal) no more that 5% of lamp lumens and no more than 20% at or above 80 degrees.

        d.     Non-cutoff:  No limitations of light distribution at any angle.

         Footcandles.  The amount of light falling on a surface.  One footcandle is defined as one lumen per square foot.  Initial footcandles is the amount of light when fixtures are new.

         Glare.  Light that causes discomfort, distraction, or temporary impairment of sight because it is not adequately diffused, shielded, or directed away from the viewer.

         Installed.  The attachment, or assembly fixed in place, whether or not connected to a power source, of any outdoor light fixture.

         Light fixture.  An illuminating device, outdoor lighting or reflective surface, lamp or similar device, permanently installed or portable, used for illumination or advertisement.

         Light loss ratio.  The ratio of the illuminance on a given area after a period of time to the initial illuminance on the same area.  Note: The light loss factor is used in lighting calculations as an allowance for the depreciation of lamps, accumulation of dirt on luminaire, light control elements and room surfaces, to values below the initial or design conditions, so that a minimum desired level of illuminance may be maintained in service.

         Light spillage.  Lighting that illuminates property adjacent to the property on which the light source is located.

         Lighting engineer.  A person having the education and training to design outdoor lighting systems and prepare and interpret lighting plans.

         Lumen.  Unit of luminous flux; used to measure the amount of light emitted by lamps.

         Luminaire.  The complete lighting assembly, less the support assembly.  For purposes of determining total light output from luminaries, lighting assemblies that include multiple unshielded or full cutoff lamps on a single pole or standard shall be considered as a single unit.  Two or more units with lamps less than three (3) feet apart shall be considered a single luminaire.

         Maintained footcandles.  Illuminance of lighting fixtures adjusted for a light loss factor (maintenance factor) accounting for dirt build-up and lamp output depreciation.

         Maximum-to-minimum ratio.  The highest horizontal illuminance point divided by the lowest horizontal illuminance point or area.

             Nadir.  A point directly below the light fixture.

    (2)    The standards in this section are based on the standards in the IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9 th Edition and “Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended Practice,” RP-33-99 both published by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.  These publications shall be used in interpreting undefined terms and unclear provisions of this section.  When new editions of these publications are available, the environment and energy commission shall prepare a report to the city council setting forth any recommended changes in the standards of this section.

FIGURE 29.30.1

    (c)    Conformance with applicable codes.  All outdoor illuminating devices shall be installed in conformance with the provisions of this section, the Building Code, the Electrical Code and Chapter 23 of this code as applicable and under appropriate permit and inspection.

    (d)    General requirements and exceptions.

(1)    This section applies to all new construction that includes outdoor lighting and to all replacement of outdoor lighting structures other than replacement of lighting fixtures.  

(2)    All outdoor facilities intended for nighttime use shall be illuminated and such illumination shall be maintained in compliance with the standards of this section.

(3)    Search lights and similar spot light fixtures, such as moving, flashing, chasing and strobe lights used to attract attention to a place are prohibited.

(4)    The following are exceptions to the outdoor lighting regulations of this section:

    a.    Lighting structures installed lawfully before December 4, 2006 may continue in operation. Routine replacement and repair of lighting fixtures installed before December 4, 2006 shall be exempt from the requirements of this section.

    b.    Lighting installations in Districts PUD, O-P, C-P, M-R, or M-P shown on development plans approved before December 4, 2006 shall comply with   outdoor lighting standards adopted as part of those plans.

    c.    Additions to buildings, parking lots, and other site improvements approved before December 4, 2006 shall be exempt from the lighting plan submittal requirements of subsection 29-30.1(f), provided the addition does not increase either the size of a building or parking lot greater than fifty (50) percent of its existing gross floor area.

    d.    The addition of individual lighting structures shall not require submittal of a lighting plan provided the owner provides a certification that the additional   lighting structures conform to the design criteria of this section, or the property owner obtains a special exception as provided in Sec. 29-31(g).

    e.    This section shall not apply to public street lighting.

    f.    Seasonal decorations that include illuminated displays are exempt from this section except that no light fixture that is part of a seasonal display shall be aimed or directed to create glare or light spillage.

    g.    This section shall not apply to the installation of an outdoor lighting structure if an application for a building permit involving the installation of that structure was received by the city on or before December 4, 2006.

    (5)    For enhanced security, only light sources with a Color Rendering Index (CRI) of greater than 60 shall be used.  See Appendix A for CRI range of lamps.

    (e)    Methods of measurement:

(1)    Unless otherwise specified, all footcandle values shall be measured horizontally and shall refer to maintained footcandles (initial values with a light loss ratio applied).

(2)    Light spillage thresholds shall be determined by horizontal footcandles measured at ground level at the property line.

(3)    Maximum height shall be measured as the vertical distance between the finished grade directly below a light fixture and the highest point on the light fixture.

(4)    A light loss ratio of 0.72 shall be used to calculate lighting plans.

(5)    Maximum-to-minimum is the highest horizontal illuminance point divided by the lowest horizontal illuminance point or area and should not be greater than the values shown.

    (f)     Photometric lighting plan requirements.     All applications for building permits involving installation of outdoor lighting shall include the following information:

(1)    A photometric plan, prepared by a lighting engineer at a scale of no smaller than one (1) inch equals sixty (60) feet which consists of:

    a.    An accurate site plan of the proposed development indicating the location of property lines, and all existing and proposed land improvements including but not limited to buildings, parking lots, aisles and driveways, streets, walkways, landscaped areas and accessory structures;

    b.    The estimated footcandles at ground level across the entire site, at minimum intervals of thirty (30) feet, including estimated footcandles at the property line;

    c.    Location and type of all lighting fixtures;

    d.    A table indicating the type, light source, wattage, output in lumens, light loss ratio, height of luminaires above grade and the maximum-to-minimum ratio.  The maximum-to-minimum ratio shall be calculated using 95% of the data point sources, excluding 2.5% of the lowest values and 2.5% of the highest values; and

    e.     A certification by a lighting engineer that the lighting plan complies with the standards of this section. The director of community development or the director's designee may rely on this certification for issuance of appropriate construction and occupancy permits.

(2)    Manufacturer’s catalogue specifications of all luminaires to be used, indicating the design, refractor (lens) type, cutoff angle (full, semi or non-cutoff), and any special features affecting the performance of the light.

    (g)    Parking lot illumination.  The following standards apply to the illumination of parking lots:

(1)    Minimum lighting.  During business hours, parking lots shall be uniformly illuminated such that vehicular license plates, addresses and directional, instructional or regulatory signs are plainly visible without blind spots or excessive distortion of color. Minimum maintained illuminance values are stated in Table 29-30.1(a).

(2)    Lighting control.  Lighting shall have automatic controls capable of turning off lighting when sufficient daylight is available or when the lighting is not required during nighttime hours. Lighting not designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by an astronomical time switch or time switch and photo sensor with the following exceptions:

    a.    Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation;

    b.    Lighting that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation; or

    c.    Decorative gas lighting systems.

(3)    Maximum height.  When non-cutoff light fixtures are used, the height of the light structure shall not exceed fifteen (15) feet above grade.  When any other light fixtures are used, the height of the light structure shall not exceed twenty-eight (28) feet above grade.

In a planned district, the City Council may allow up to thirty-five (35) feet maximum pole height with a maximum base height of three (3) feet if the following criteria are met:

    a.    There is no residential zoning within five hundred (500) feet of the parking lot perimeter.

    b.    The buildings are configured so that the lighting is shielded from the residential area.

    c.    The site is ten (10) acres or greater.

    Where a taller base is required, the pole length shall be decreased to prevent the luminaire’s light source from being more than thirty-eight (38) feet above grade.

(4)    Building mounted parking lot lighting.  Areas of parking lots, circulation drives, loading areas and drive-thru lanes located near the perimeter of a building may be illuminated by building-mounted lights provided the design of the lights conform to the standards of this section as documented in the lighting plan.

(5)    The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for non-residential.

                                        Table 29-30.1(a)
                                  Maintained Illuminance Values for Parking Lots*            
                                        Basic             Enhanced

Minimum Horizontal Illuminance            0.2 fc            0.5 fc

Maximum-to-Minimum Ratio            20:1            15:1

Minimum Vertical Illuminance            0.1 fc            0.25
* Table taken from “Lighting for Parking Facilities,” Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, RP-20-98, p. 3.

    (h)    Service station canopy and apron lighting.  The following standards apply to gasoline service stations in addition to the parking lot lighting regulations in Sec. 29-30.1(g).

(1)    Glare minimization. To minimize glare, no drop, sag or convex lenses shall be used on lighting under the canopy unless the lenses are recessed within the canopy ceiling or shielded by appropriate glare shields. No lighting shall be mounted on building or canopy fascias or rooftops unless the fixtures are full cutoff.  The intent is to keep all the light under the canopy.  This lighting shall be provided with low glare luminaires.

(2)    The maximum average illuminance levels are set forth in Table 29-30.1(b).

                                    Table 29-30.1(b)*
                    Service Station or Gas Pump Area Illuminance Levels        
Area Description    Maximum Average Illuminance on
                                                                 Described Area (Footcandles)

Approach with Dark Surroundings    1.5
Driveway with Dark Surroundings    1.5
Pump Island Area with Dark Surroundings    5.0
Building Facades with Dark Surroundings    2.0
Service Areas with Dark Surroundings    2.0
Landscape Highlights with Dark Surroundings    1.0
Approach with Light Surroundings    2.0
Driveway with Light Surroundings    2.0
Pump Island Area with Light Surroundings    10.0
Building Facades with Light Surroundings    3.0
Service Areas with Light Surroundings    3.0
Landscape Highlights with Light Surroundings    2.0
* Table taken from “Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended Practice,” RP-33-99, p. 43.

    (i)    Outdoor display area lighting.  Illumination of outdoor display areas for sale of automobiles, recreational vehicles, and manufactured homes and other finished products customarily displayed outdoors shall be permitted in accordance with Table 29-30.1(c) and with the following:

    (1)    Maximum height of light fixtures same as parking lots.

(2)    Glare minimization. To minimize glare, no drop, sag or convex lenses shall be used on display-area lighting. Glare shields shall be used to eliminate visibility of the light source from the public roadway.

(3)    The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for non-residential.

                                            Table 29-30.1(c)*
                                Illuminance Levels for Outdoor Display Lighting            
Area        Maximum Illuminance       Maximum-to-  
    on Pavement (Footcandles)    Minimum Ratio

Adjacent to Roadway    10 – 20    5:1
Other Areas      5 – 10    10:1
Entrances      5 – 10      5:1
Driveways      2 – 3    10:1
*Table taken from “Lighting for Exterior Environment: An IESNA Recommended Practice,” RP-33-99, p. 43.

    (j)    Building lighting.  The following standards apply to building lighting:

    (1)    Location and direction.

    a.    Building mounted lights shall be mounted and installed so that all light is directed downward, unless the lights are decorative lighting.

    b.    Fixtures shall be full cutoff or semi-cutoff.

    c.    No wall packs or similar lights shall be permitted unless the cutoff angle effectively eliminates visible glare from beyond the property lines.

    d.    No light fixtures shall be mounted above the parapet or, for pitched roofs, above the eave except motion-detection security lighting, decorative lighting and accent lighting.

    e.    Functional lighting shall not exceed 400 watts.  Decorative or accent lighting shall not exceed 100 watts.

    f.    The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for non-residential.

    g.    The maximum average illuminance levels for floodlighting buildings and monuments are set forth in Table 29-30.1(d).

    h.     If swivel mountings are used, lights may be raised a maximum of 20° from horizontal and may not be mounted above the buildings and must be full cutoff fixtures.

(2)    Decorative lighting.  Decorative building lighting, in which the purpose is enhancement of building appearance, shall be permitted and may be directed toward the building, provided that all light is cast against the building surface.

a.    Lighting fixtures shall be carefully located, aimed and shielded so that light is directed only onto the building façade.  Lighting fixtures shall not be directed toward adjacent streets or roads.

b.    Lighting fixtures mounted on the building and designed to wash the façade with light are preferred.

                                        Table 29-30.1(d)*
                    Illuminance Levels for Floodlighting Buildings and Monuments            
Area Description    Maximum Average Illuminance
                 (Vertical) (Footcandles)

Bright Surroundings and Light Surfaces      5
Bright Surroundings and Medium Light Surfaces      7
Bright Surroundings and Dark Surfaces    10
Dark Surroundings and Light Surfaces      2
Dark Surroundings and Medium Light Surfaces      3
Dark Surroundings and Medium Dark Surfaces      4
Dark Surroundings and Dark Surfaces      5
*Table taken from “Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended Practice,” RP-33-99, p. 30

    (k)    Landscape lighting.  The following standards apply to landscape lighting:

    (1)    Luminaires shall be mounted four (4) feet or lower to the ground.  

(2)    The photometric plan shall show the location of all landscape lighting fixtures and the landscaping feature each fixture is to illuminate.  The plan shall demonstrate that the installation shall not generate excessive light levels, cause glare, or direct light beyond the landscaping into the night sky.

    (l)    Athletic field and outdoor arena lighting.  The following standards apply to the illumination of athletic fields and outdoor arenas:

(1)    Minimum and maximum lighting. Athletic fields, where nighttime activity is authorized, shall provide adequate illumination for the scheduled activities. The minimum and maximum light levels shall meet the standards for sports lighting set forth in “Sports and Recreational Area Lighting,” RP-6-01, published by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.  Lighting shall be cutoff standards so that light is primarily aimed at and directed to the activity area.

(2)     Fixture height.  Athletic field other than adult baseball fields and arena lighting fixtures shall not exceed seventy (70) feet above finished grade directly below the lighting fixture.  Adult baseball field lighting fixtures shall not exceed eighty (80) feet above finished grade directly below the lighting fixture.  

(3)    Hours of operation.  Lighting, except for lights reasonably necessary for security purposes, shall be turned off within two (2) hours   after the event or closure of the facility, or when required by other regulatory ordinance.  Dusk to dawn lights for security purposes shall not emit visible glare from the perspective of adjacent properties, internal access aisles and public streets.

(4)    The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property is 1.0 footcandle on residential and 4.0 footcandles on non-residential.

    (m)    Private street lighting.  Private street lighting is permitted provided the fixtures, wattage and output, fixture height, and spacing are comparable to the public street lighting standards set forth in Secs. 27-146 through 27-151 of this code.  

    (n)    Security lighting.  The following standards apply to security lighting:  

(1)    All security lighting fixtures shall be shielded and aimed so that illumination is directed only to the designated area and not cast on other areas.  Lighting shall not be directed above a horizontal plane through the top of the lighting fixture, and the fixture shall include shields that prevents the light source or lens from being visible from adjacent roadways and properties.  The use of general floodlighting fixtures is prohibited.

(2)    The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for non-residential.

    (o)    Signs.  Illumination of signs shall conform to Chapter 23 of this code.  Location of illuminated signs and any lighting fixtures external to the signs shall be included on a lighting plan.

                                        APPENDIX – TABLE
                            Table: Color Rendering Index Range of Lamps*

Lamp Type        Color Rendering Index (CRI)            
    Lite White    > 40
    Warm White    > 50
    Warm White Deluxe    > 70
    Cool White    > 60
    Cool White Deluxe    > 80
    White    > 60
    Daylight    > 70
    T12 Rare Earth Phosphor    > 69 to > 80
    T8 Rare Earth Phosphor    > 70 to > 90
    Natural    > 80
    Incandescent    > 80
    Compact T4, T5    > 80
    C50, C70, DSGN 50    > 90
Mercury Vapor
    Clear    15 – 25
    Coated    40 to >50
Metal Halide
    Clear or Coated    60  > 90
High Pressure Sodium
    Standard    > 20
    Color Improved    > 60
    High Color Rendering    > 80
Low Pressure Sodium    > 20
*Table is taken from “Lighting for Parking Facilities,” Report 20 – 98 of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 1998.   
For lamp types not listed above, the Manufacture’s CRI for the lamp can be used to determine if the lamp meets the standard of a CRI > 60.

(Ord. No. 19310, § 1, 12-4-06 ; Ord. No. 21095, § 13, 9-19-11)

(Ord. 21095, Amended, 09/19/2011, Prior Text; Ord. 19310, Added, 12/04/2006)