Section 29-30 Off-street parking and loading regulations.

(a)    General Requirements:

     (1)     Except for non-residential buildings in district C-2, existing buildings and portions of existing buildings fifty (50) years and older in district C-2 reused for residential purposes, and except as provided in subsection (a)(2), all uses established and all buildings erected, constructed, reconstructed, or expanded after November 19, 2001 shall be provided with off-street parking spaces, either in the form of parking garages or open parking areas for the parking of motor passenger vehicles, as specified herein.

    (2)    Exceptions to off-street parking and loading regulations.
    
        a.    Subject to the provisions of subsections (a)(3), (4) and (5), the off-street parking requirements of this section that were in effect on November 18, 2001 shall apply to:

            1.    Any use or building for which a building permit was issued before November 20, 2001; provided, that construction on the building is begun within one hundred eighty (180) days of issuance of the building permit and completed within two (2) years of issuance of the building permit.

            2.    Any use or building for which plans were submitted to the city and were under review by City staff on November 19, 2001; provided, that the plans were in substantial compliance with all city ordinances and regulations,     the plans are approved by the city, building permits are issued for the structures shown on the plans and construction on the structures is begun within one hundred eighty (180) days of issuance of the building permit and completed within two (2) years of issuance of the building permit.

        b.    The off-street parking requirements of this section shall not apply to property that is located in a planned zoning district and that is subject to a site plan or development plan approved before November 19, 2001.

(3)    When the intensity of use of any legally established building, structure or premises is increased resulting in a net increase of gross floor area or any other unit of measurement specified herein for determining required parking areas, parking spaces and any other facilities as required herein shall be provided for such increase in intensity of use.

(4)    Whenever the type of use of a building, structure or premises is changed to a new type of use permitted by this chapter, parking spaces and areas shall be provided as required by the provisions of this section for such new type of use, subject to the exception noted in Section 29-30 (a)(2).

(5)    Required offstreet parking areas in existence on November 19, 2001 shall not be reduced below, or if already less than, shall not be further reduced below, the requirements for such use as would be required for the use as a new use of a building, structure or premises under the provisions of this section.

(6)    In a residential district, no garage other than a private garage shall be located nearer than sixty (60) feet to the front lot line. Required parking spaces may be tandem to serve one- and two-family dwellings only; provided that the parking space is adjacent and parallel to the driveway serving the space required behind the building line and only one parking space per dwelling unit is allowed in the required front yard or on the required side yard on the street side of a corner lot. Parking spaces for all other uses in residential districts shall not be located in the required front yard.
(7)    No motor vehicle shall be parked in the yard area of a one-family, one-family attached or two-family dwelling, multiple-family apartment, court apartment, group dwelling, sorority or fraternity house, dormitory, cooperative house, or rooming, boarding, or lodging house, other than in a parking area or driveway as defined by and under the provisions of this chapter, provided that such parking shall be allowed on property with a valid temporary permit issued by the director of community development under subsection (a)(8).

a.    If any vehicle is found in violation of this provision and the driver thereof is not present, the owner or person in whose name such vehicle is registered in the records of the city, county or state, shall be responsible for such violation when such vehicle was being used with permission. Proof of the ownership, as aforesaid, shall be prima facie evidence that such vehicle with absent driver was being operated with the permission of the owner.
b.    In addition, the owner or general agent of the building or premises where a violation of this provision exists, or the lessees or tenants of an entire building or entire premises where such violation has been committed or shall exist, shall be responsible for such violation, when such person knows of such violation or has been served with an order to remove any such violation and after five (5) days following service of such order has failed to remove any such violation, or allows any violation of this provision to exist.

        c.    Any person found in violation of this provision shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars ($100.00) or by imprisonment of not more than thirty (30) days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(8)    The director of community development may issue temporary permits to the owner or authorized agent of the owner to allow parking of motor vehicles in a yard area as prohibited in subsection (a)(7), subject to the following terms and conditions:

a.    Such permit shall be issued for a period deemed appropriate by the director of community development , not to exceed forty-eight (48) hours.

b.     No such permit may be issued for parking in the yard area of a one-family , one-family attached  or two-family dwelling.

c.    Such permits may be issued only for Saturdays, Sundays or holidays.

d.    Such permit shall only be issued on a finding by the director of community development that such permit is necessary for an event which is of city or area-wide concern and where such event will attract traffic which cannot be effectively served by existing accessible parking facilities.

(b)    Parking Requirements.  Off-street parking spaces shall be provided for all uses in accordance with the minimum requirement set forth in Table 29-30 (b)(1).

Table 29-30 (b) (1)



Required Parking
Residential
One- and Two-Family Dwelling Units
2 spaces/dwelling unit for one-family attached and unattached dwellings; 2 spaces/unit for two-family units having up to 2 bedrooms; three spaces/unit  in two-family units of 3 or more bedrooms
One-family Attached Units
2 spaces/dwelling unit
Multi-Family Dwellings
1.0 spaces/dwelling unit for "efficiency" apartment (i.e., units without a separate bedroom); 1.5 spaces/dwelling unit for 1 bedroom units; 2 spaces/dwelling unit for 2 bedroom units; 2.5 spaces/dwelling for 3 or more bedroom units; In addition to required parking for residents, 1 space/5 dwelling units will be required for visitor parking
Dormitories
1 space/2 occupants the building is ultimately designed to accommodate
Fraternity/Sorority Houses
1 space/2 occupants
Elderly and Handicapped Housing
1 space/unit
Boardinghouse or Rooming House
1 space/2 occupants the building is ultimately designed to accommodate
Nursing (or Convalescent) Homes and Residential Care Facilities
1 space/4 beds plus 1 space/employee
Bed and Breakfast
1 space/guest room plus 2 parking spaces/dwelling unit
Motel, Hotel
1 space/room plus 1 space/20 rooms (to accommodate motel/hotel staff) plus 75% of the normal spaces required for accessory uses (e.g. banquet rooms, meeting rooms, restaurants, etc.) if applicable.
Mobile Home
2 space/dwelling unit
Temporary Shelters
1 space/employee plus 1 space/every 4 occupants the shelter is designed to accommodate
Residential Uses within C-2 (Central Business District)
0.25 space/bedroom for new residential dwelling units in new buildings.

Minimum parking supply may be located:
a. Onsite in a parking structure,
b. At-grade or below grade surface parking under a building,
c. Surface parking behind a building,
d. Surface parking for which a conditional use permit has been approved; or
e. In a public or private parking structure or lot within 2,640 feet (one-half mile) of the residential entry; provided there is a written agreement to purchase or lease spaces in a public or private parking structure or lot for as  long as the building is used as a residential dwelling.

The parking requirement for standard motor vehicle parking spaces may be reduced by any of the following:
a. Each motorcycle and motor scooter parking space may be counted as one vehicular parking space, up to ten percent (10%) of the total spaces required;
b. Each required bicycle parking space shall be counted as the equivalent of one motor vehicle parking space, as specified in section 29-30(m).

The community development director may recommend, and the city council may approve, a reduction in the calculated parking requirement based on a parking management strategy that may include some combination of:
a. Car share programs;
b. Purchase of bus passes for the use of the Columbia transit system by tenants;
c. Provision of private transit services to building residents;
d. A parking study that documents a reduced demand for parking.



Public and Quasi-Public Uses  
Art Gallery, Museum, Education Research Center, Library  
1 space/1,000 sq. feet  
Auditorium or Assembly Hall  
1 space/4 seats or occupants  
Churches, Temples, Mosques, & Synagogues  
1 space/4 seats in sanctuary or other assembly area  
College/University Administrative or service buildings  
1 space/employee station  
College/University Classrooms  
1 space/5 classroom seats  
College/University Dormitories where students are not permitted autos  
Community development director may reduce requirements for dorms by not more than 20% during such periods students are not permitted autos.  
Day Care Facility  
1 space/employee plus either of the following: 1) Two (2) parking spaces for the first 10 children  plus one (1) parking space for every ten (10) additional children, or fraction thereof, for whom  care is provided; OR 2) A drive through facility with adequate ““pullover”” space out of the flow  of driveway traffic for two (2) additional vehicles.  
Hospital and Sanitarium  
1 space/bed for first 100 beds; 1 space/2 beds for next 100 beds; 1 space/4 beds thereafter  
Lodge or Private Club  
1 space/200 sq. ft. of assembly area  
Philanthropic/eleemosynary institutions, other than penal or correctional;  
1 space/400 sq. ft.  
Schools (including public, private, parochial) Elementary, Junior High or Middle School  
 Elementary schools - 1 space/employee plus 1 space/15 students; Middle schools and junior high schools - 1 space/employee plus 1 space/10 students  
Senior High School  
1 space/employee plus 1 space/4 students  
Other schools including Vocational, Trade or Business Schools  
1 space/employee station plus 1 space/each 5 students except nursery schools which require 1 space/employee or teacher station  
Office and Related Uses  


Bank, Savings and Loan Association and Other Financial Institutions  
Walk-in facility: 1 space/250 sq feet; Drive-thru facility: 1 space/300 sq feet plus 3 stacking spaces for each drive-up window  
Medical Clinic or Office  
1 space/each 200 sq. ft.  
Professional & Business Office  
1 space/300 sq. feet  
Service Business Uses  
Animal Hospital/Kennel  
1 space/300 sq. ft.  
Barber & Beauty Shop  
2 spaces/chair or operator station  
Dry Cleaning or Laundry Establishment  
1 space/300 sq. ft.  
Mortuary, Funeral Home  
1 space/5 seats in largest chapel plus 1 space/employee plus 1 space for each facility vehicle  
Retail Business Uses  
Apparel & Accessory Stores, Clothing Store, Shoe Store, Jewelry Store  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Building Materials, Hardware & Garden Supplies  
1 space/250 sq. ft. plus 1 space/1,000 sq ft of outdoor sales area  
Computer Supply  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Convenience Store  
1 space/200 sq. ft. Parking spaces at gas pumps will count toward required parking  
Department Store  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Drug Stores  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Dry Goods, Fabric Store  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Furniture, Appliance Stores, Home Furnishings  
1 space/400 sq. ft.  
Office Supply  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Restaurant, Café, Fast-Food Restaurant, Taverns or Bars  
1 space/100 sq. feet; Drive-thrus also required to have 4 stacking spaces/window  
Shopping Center  
First 200,000 sq ft. of gross floor area (GFA) - 1 space/250 sq. ft; Over 200,000 sq. ft. of GFA  - 1  space/200 sq. ft.  
Sporting Goods  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Supermarket, Food and Beverage Stores  
1 space/200 sq. ft.  
Commercial Recreational Uses  
Bowling Alley or Lanes
5 spaces/lane; Other uses (bar, restaurant, etc) figured separately at 75% of the parking required
Driving Range  
1 space/tee box  
Golf Course  
4 spaces/hole  
Health Clubs & Fitness Centers  
1 space/150 sq. ft  
Indoor Movie Theater  
1 space/4 seats  
Indoor Recreation Facilities  
1 space/300 sq. ft  
Miniature Golf  
1 space/hole  
Parks & playgrounds  
1 space/5,000 sq feet of land area  
Pool Halls  
1 space/300 sq. ft  
Rifle, pistol, and archery ranges  
1 space/station        
Skating Rinks  
1 space/200 sq. feet  
Stadiums  
1 space/4 seats  
Outdoor Swimming Pools  
a.  One parking space for each one hundred fifty (150) square feet of water surface area; provided, however, additional spaces shall be required when the following amenities are included: water slide  (ten (10) feet or taller) - seven spaces for each  slide; diving board - two spaces for each board; zero depth entry - one space for each fifteen (15) lineal feet; concession stand - three spaces; tennis, basketball or volleyball court - two spaces for each  court; and  

b.  The number of spaces shall be reduced by twenty (20) percent if use of the pool is restricted  to residents of the subdivision in which the pool is  located or if use of at least twenty-five (25) percent of the pool is regularly devoted to training  or therapy.  
Indoor Swimming Pools  
a.  One parking space for each two hundred (200) square feet of water surface area; provided, however, additional spaces shall be required when pool amenities are included at the same rate as for  outdoor swimming pools, as well as when the following other amenities are included: aerobics  floor or cardiovascular room - one space for each one hundred (100) square feet, weight room - one space for each one hundred fifty (150) square feet, lounge or office area- one space for each two hundred (200) square feet, other useable activity  areas - one space for each three hundred (300) square feet; and

b.  the number of parking spaces shall be reduced by twenty (20) percent if use of at least twenty-five (25) percent of the pool is regularly devoted  to training or therapy.  
Tennis Courts  
2 spaces/court  
Transportation and Related Uses  
Auto Service Stations and Auto Accessory Stores  
1 space/200 s.f.; spaces at fuel pump islands will be counted toward this requirement  
Automobile Repair, Major  
1 space/employee plus 4 spaces/service bay; Inoperable vehicles shall not occupy required parking  
Automobile, Boat, Truck, and Mobile Home Sales & Service  
1 space/400 sq. ft of floor area plus 1 space/3,000 sq. feet of open lot display area  
Car Wash - Automatic and Self-serve  
4 stacking and drying spaces/stall  
Self-Service Storage Facility  
1 space/20 rental units plus 2 spaces for the "office"; Rows between storage buildings shall be  designed to allow for simultaneous vehicle  parking and passage.  
Warehouse  
1 space/2,000 sq. ft. of floor area  
Wholesale Distribution  
1 space/1,000 sq. feet  
Industrial Uses  
Manufacturing/Industrial Uses  
The greater of 1 space/employee for the sum of the two largest consecutive shifts plus 1 space/vehicle used in the conduct of business OR 1 space/600  sq. ft of floor area  

(c)    Other Parking Requirements. For any and all uses or structures not specifically provided for in the foregoing enumeration, such parking spaces as the director of community development shall determine necessary, considering all the parking-generating factors involved, but not less than two (2) spaces.

(d)    Transit Incentive.  Upon application of the owner, the parking requirement of a building or use may be reduced by 5 percent for lots or tracts of two (2) acres or more located on a transit route which provide, at the owner's cost, transit pulloffs and transit rider shelters of a type and location acceptable to the City.

(e)     Shared Parking. Upon application of the owners, facilities may be shared if multiple uses cooperatively establish and operate parking facilities and if these uses generate parking demands at different times. (For example, if one use operates during evenings and weekends only and other uses operate during weekdays only). The applicant shall have the burden of proof for a reduction in the total number of required parking spaces, and shall provide required documentation. A shared parking arrangement shall be approved by the director of community development only if:

(1)    A sufficient number of spaces are provided to meet the greater parking demand of the particular uses.

(2)    Satisfactory evidence has been submitted by the parties operating the shared parking facility, describing the nature of the uses and times when the uses operate so as to demonstrate the lack of conflict between them.

(3)    Additional documents, covenants, deed restrictions, or other agreements as may be deemed necessary by the director of community development are executed to assure that the required parking spaces provided are maintained and uses with similar hours and parking requirements as those uses sharing the parking remain for the life of the building.

(f)    Mixed Uses.  Generally, in mixed uses, the parking facilities required shall be the sum of the requirements for the various individual uses, computed separately in accordance with this section.  Parking facilities for one use shall not be considered as providing the required parking facilities for any other use, except as approved above in subsection (f) Shared Parking.

(g)    Location of Facilities.  Except as otherwise provided in this section, off-street automobile parking facilities required by this section for all uses except residential may be located either on the premises of the parking generator or within one thousand (1,000) feet therefrom.  Land used for parking shall be zoned to accommodate the generating use.  All off-premises parking facilities available to the public shall install sidewalks along abutting streets and be accessible to abutting street rights-of-way for physically handicapped persons.

(h)    Improvement of Parking Areas.  All open parking areas shall have:

(1)    Setback.  No parking shall be permitted within six (6) feet of an adjoining lot in a residential district, except as otherwise provided by this chapter.

(2)    Grades and Drainage.  Parking areas shall be designed to assure positive drainage, but shall not exceed a slope of ten (10) percent; provided that transitional and approach driveways which do not serve directly abutting parking spaces may be designed to a slope of up to fifteen (15) percent, if accompanied by appropriate landing grades and vertical curves at points of transition.  Storm drainage control and facilities shall be designed to satisfy the requirements of the storm drainage standards of the City.

(3)    Access. Ingress and egress shall be only by way of paved driveways or openings, according to standards on file with the director of community development . All parking areas of more than two hundred (200) spaces shall be served by more than one (1) standard entrance. Access driveways shall be free of objects which might interfere with the ability of drivers to see pedestrians and other vehicles.








(4)    Paving, Curbs and Marking:

a.    All new and expanded vehicle parking and maneuvering areas must be paved with concrete, asphalt, or an alternate paving material as determined by the director of community development . Vehicle storage areas may be surfaced with a permanent, dust-free pavement in lieu of concrete or asphalt pavement. Pavement cross-section shall be determined by the owner based on considerations of durability, subsurface conditions, and the type of vehicles  using the parking area.

b.    Curb islands or wheel stops may be installed for drainage control, and for vehicular channelization and lane control; provided, that in parking areas of more than one hundred (100) spaces, curbing or similar measures shall be required to assure safe and proper control of vehicular and pedestrian movements.  Parked vehicles shall be prevented from intruding on travel lanes, walkways, public streets, or adjacent properties by means of walls, curbs, wheel stops, or other means.

c.    Interior driveways, fire lanes, and loading or maneuvering areas shall be in accord with applicable standards on file with the director of community development . Parking spaces shall be delineated, and appropriate traffic flow indications given, by use of reflectorized paint on the parking area pavement.

d.    All paving, curbs and markings shall be continuously maintained in good condition, to the above standards, after installation.

(5)    Lighting.  Lights shall be required for all parking areas intended for night use. Lights shall be arranged or shielded to direct illumination away from residences and from public streets and other public areas.

(6)    Certification. Prior to authorizing use of any parking area established under this section, or issuance of occupancy certificates for any uses dependent thereon, the director of community development , or the director’s representative, shall inspect and certify the parking area to be in compliance with these standards.

(7)    Exceptions.  Driveways and off-street parking for one-family and two-family dwellings in Districts R-1 and R-2 shall not be required to comply with the provisions of Subsections (i)(1), (i)(2),  (i)(4)c., and (i)(5) hereof.

    (i)    Loading Space for Business and Industry.  Any business or industrial building, hospital, institution or hotel hereafter erected, constructed, reconstructed or expanded in any District shall provide adequate off-street facilities for the loading and unloading of merchandise and goods within or adjacent to the building in such a manner as not to obstruct freedom of traffic movement on the public streets or alleys.

    (j)    Permits. Parking lots without an associated building permit shall be subject to separate permitting and inspecting during construction, as appropriate, and shall not be open for use until a certificate of completion has been issued by the community development department.


    (k)    Dimensional elements of off-street parking layouts

(1)    All required parking spaces must comply with the minimum dimensions for spaces shown in the following diagram and table:

Standard Sized Vehicles                Table 29-30(l)(4)
Parking Angle (A)  
0  
20  
30  
40  
45  
50  
60  
70  
80  
90  
Curb Length Per Space (B)  
23.0'  
24.9'  
17.0'  
13.0'  
12.0'  
11.3'  
9.8'  
9.4'  
9.0'  
8.5'  
Space Depth (C)  
8.0'  
14.5'  
16.9'  
18.5'  
18.8'  
19.3  
20.0'  
19.5'  
19.0'  
18.0'  
Access Aisle Width (D)  
12.0'* **  
12.0'*  
12.0'*  
12.0'*  
13.0'*
15.0'*  
18.0'  
20.0'  
22.0'  
24.0'  
Space Width (E)  
8.0'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  
8.5'  

Note* -  Aisle width (D) shall not be less than 18' if the aisle is a designated fire lane.
Note** - Aisle width (D) shall not be less than 22' for two-way traffic.

(2)    If the degree of angle of parking provided is not listed, the aisle width required shall be the next largest angle of parking shown.

(3)    If parking spaces are located only on one side of an access aisle, the width of the access aisle may be reduced by 20 percent but not less than 12' wide or 18' wide if a designated fire lane.

    (l)     Delayed construction of required parking. Upon application of the owner, up to twenty (20) percent of the parking required under this chapter may remain unimproved until such time as the director of community development deems that it must be improved to adequately serve the parking demand. Such delayed construction of parking may be permitted only after the director of community development is satisfied that the initial occupancy of the premises will be adequately served by the lesser number of spaces and only after approval of a site plan clearly indicating the location, pattern, and circulation to and from the deferred parking spaces. The land area so delineated for future parking shall be brought to finished grade and shall be landscaped. It shall not be used for building, storage, loading or other purposes. Further, it shall not count toward the required landscaping for the site.

(m)    Providing facilities for the storage of bicycles in off-street parking lots or structures.

(1)    Any parking lot or structure which contains ten (10) or more parking spaces shall be required to provide adequate and safe on-site bicycle parking facilities. These bicycle parking facilities shall be designed to accommodate the number of bicycle parking spaces according to the following number of required vehicle spaces: ten (10) to fifty (50) vehicle spaces—four (4) bicycle parking spaces; fifty-one (51) to ninety-nine (99) vehicle spaces--eight (8) bicycle parking spaces; one hundred (100) to one hundred ninety-nine (199) vehicle spaces--twelve (12) bicycle parking spaces; two hundred (200) to two hundred ninety-nine (299) vehicle spaces--fifteen (15) bicycle parking spaces; three hundred (300) or more vehicle spaces - number of bicycle parking spaces equal to five (5) percent of the number of vehicle spaces. For parking lots having more than twenty-five (25) required vehicle parking spaces, the required number of vehicle parking spaces may be reduced by one space for each required bicycle parking space installed.

 (2)    Bicycle parking facilities shall be equipped with either a lockable enclosure (bicycle locker) or a permanent, secure, and stationary structure (bicycle rack) that supports the bicycle frame and to which the frame and both bicycle wheels can be locked (with removal of the front wheel) or where the frame and one (1) wheel can be locked (if both wheels remain on the bicycle).

 (3)    Each bicycle parking space shall be at least six (6) feet long, two (2) feet wide and shall have a minimum overhead clearance of seven (7) feet. If more than one (1) bicycle rack is used, an access aisle five (5) feet wide at a minimum is required beside or between each row of bicycle racks. Bicycle parking facilities shall be surfaced with all-weather material and maintained in a safe and neat condition.



(4)    Bicycle parking facilities shall be clearly designated, safely separated from vehicle maneuvering areas, and located near the main and employee entrance s to the principle use. Bicycle parking facilities in parking structures shall be located on ground level.

(n)    Screening and Landscaping - All parking facilities shall comply with the screening and landscaping requirements of Section 29-25.


(Code 1964, § 19.250; Ord. No. 9958, § 1, 10-3-83; Ord. No. 11702, § 1, 12-7-87; Ord. No. 13058, § 1, 8-19-91; Ord. No. 13416, § 1, 8-17-92; Ord. No. 13543, § 1, 12-21-92; Ord. No. 13622, § 1, 3-15-93; Ord. No. 14164, § 1, 8-1-94; Ord. No. 15134, § 1, 2-3-97; Ord. No. 16798, § 1, 3-5-01; Ord. No. 17116, § 2, 12-17-01; Ord. No. 17247, § 1, 4-1-02; Ord. No. 17575, § 1, 2-3-03; Ord. No. 19503, § 1, 5-7-07 ; Ord. No. 20237, § 1, 4-20-09 ; Ord. No. 21095, § 13, 9-19-11; Ord. No. 22109, § 1, 7-7-14; Ord. No. 22173, § 1, 8-18-14)

(EDITOR'S NOTE:  Section 29-30 was repealed and replaced by Ord. No. 17116 on 12-17-01.)


(Ord. 22173, Amended, 08/18/2014, Prior Text; Ord. 22109, Amended, 07/07/2014, Prior Text; Ord. 21095, Amended, 09/19/2011, Prior Text; Ord. 20237, Amended, 04/20/2009, Prior Text; Ord. 19503, Amended, 05/07/2007, Prior Text; Ord. 17575, Amended, 02/03/2003, Prior Text; 17247, Amended, 04/01/2002, Prior Text; 17116, Amended, 12/17/2001, Prior Text; 16798, Amended, 03/05/2001, Prior Text; 15134, Amended, 02/03/1997, Prior Text)