Series 107 2006 ORDINANCES/RESOLUTIONS
Section 107-738; Ord. 19310; Amending Chapter 29 of the City Code to establish outdoor lighting regulations
Ordinance No. 19310 Council
Bill No. B 466-06 A
amending Chapter 29 of the City Code to establish outdoor lighting regulations; and fixing the
time when this ordinance shall become effective.
BE IT ORDAINED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF COLUMBIA, MISSOURI, AS
SECTION 1. Chapter 29 of the Code of Ordinances of the
City of Columbia, Missouri, is
hereby amended to add the following section:
Sec. 29-30.1. Outdoor lighting regulations.
(a) Purpose and intent. The purpose of this section
is to enhance the attractiveness and
livability of the community for its citizens, both during the day and at night without
compromising the safety, security, and wellbeing of persons engaged in outdoor nighttime
activities. It is the intent of this section to control the obtrusive aspects of excessive and
outdoor lighting usage while preserving, protecting, and enhancing the lawful nighttime use and
enjoyment of property. Intended outcomes include:
(1) Insuring that parking areas, public gathering places,
approaches to buildings, and other
areas active at night have adequate outdoor illumination.
(2) Minimizing the adverse impacts on public safety and
comfort due to excessive glare.
(3) Providing minimum and maximum light levels and establishing
standards of lighting
uniformity to enhance night vision and security.
(4) Minimizing spillage of light on adjacent or nearby
(5) Minimizing the effects of skyglow.
(6) Encouraging energy conservation through the use of
efficient lighting technologies.
(b) Definitions and interpretation.
(1) The following definitions apply to this section:
Decorative lighting. Lights that have an
aesthetic purpose to illuminate the architectural
features of a building and produce generally low levels of light (100 watts, 1,800 lumens per
light), including but not limited to gooseneck lights, sconce lights, recessed lighting
soffits, spot lighting, and silhouette lights.
Color rendering. General expression
for the effect of a light source on the color appearance
of objects in conscious or subconscious comparison with their color appearance under a
reference light source.
Display area. Outdoor locations where nighttime
sales occur and where accurate color
perception by customers is needed, for example automobile sales.
Fixtures (Figure 29.30.1):
a. Full cutoff: Zero
intensity at or above horizontal (90 degrees above nadir) and limited
to a value not exceeding 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80 degrees.
b. Cutoff: Intensity
at or above 90 degrees (horizontal) no more than 2.5% of lamp
lumens and no more than 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80 degrees.
c. Semi-cutoff: Intensity at or above 90
degrees (horizontal) no more that 5% of lamp
lumens and no more than 20% at or above 80 degrees.
d. Non-cutoff: No
limitations of light distribution at any angle.
Footcandles. The amount of light falling
on a surface. One footcandle is defined as one
lumen per square foot. Initial footcandles is the amount of light when fixtures are new.
Glare. Light that causes discomfort, distraction,
or temporary impairment of sight because
it is not adequately diffused, shielded, or directed away from the viewer.
Installed. The attachment, or assembly
fixed in place, whether or not connected to a power
source, of any outdoor light fixture.
Light fixture. An illuminating device,
outdoor lighting or reflective surface, lamp or similar
device, permanently installed or portable, used for illumination or advertisement.
Light loss ratio. The ratio of the
illuminance on a given area after a period of time to the
initial illuminance on the same area. Note: The light loss factor is used in lighting calculations
an allowance for the depreciation of lamps, accumulation of dirt on luminaire, light control
elements and room surfaces, to values below the initial or design conditions, so that a minimum
desired level of illuminance may be maintained in service.
Light spillage. Lighting that illuminates
property adjacent to the property on which the light
source is located.
Lighting engineer. A person having the
education and training to design outdoor lighting
systems and prepare and interpret lighting plans.
Lumen. Unit of luminous flux; used to measure
the amount of light emitted by lamps.
Luminaire. The complete lighting assembly,
less the support assembly. For purposes of
determining total light output from luminaries, lighting assemblies that include multiple
unshielded or full cutoff lamps on a single pole or standard shall be considered as a single unit.
Two or more units with lamps less than three (3) feet apart shall be considered a single
Maintained footcandles. Illuminance of
lighting fixtures adjusted for a light loss factor
(maintenance factor) accounting for dirt build-up and lamp output depreciation.
Maximum-to-minimum ratio. The highest
horizontal illuminance point divided by the
lowest horizontal illuminance point or area.
Nadir. A point directly below the light
(2) The standards in this section are based on the standards
in the IESNA Lighting
Handbook, 9th Edition and Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended
Practice, RP-33-99 both published by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
These publications shall be used in interpreting undefined terms and unclear provisions of this
section. When new editions of these publications are available, the environment and energy
commission shall prepare a report to the city council setting forth any recommended changes in
the standards of this section.
LIGHTING FIXTURE CUTOFFS
(c) Conformance with applicable codes. All
outdoor illuminating devices shall be installed
in conformance with the provisions of this section, the Building Code, the Electrical Code and
Chapter 23 of this code as applicable and under appropriate permit and inspection.
(d) General requirements and exceptions.
(1) This section applies to all new construction that
includes outdoor lighting and to all
replacement of outdoor lighting structures other than replacement of lighting fixtures.
(2) All outdoor facilities intended for nighttime use
shall be illuminated and such
illumination shall be maintained in compliance with the standards of this section.
(3) Search lights and similar spot light fixtures, such
as moving, flashing, chasing and strobe
lights used to attract attention to a place are prohibited.
(4) The following are exceptions to the outdoor lighting
regulations of this section:
a. Lighting structures installed
lawfully before December 4, 2006 may continue in
operation. Routine replacement and repair of lighting fixtures installed before December 4, 2006
shall be exempt from the requirements of this section.
b. Lighting installations in
Districts PUD, O-P, C-P, M-R, or M-P shown on development
plans approved before December 4, 2006 shall comply with
outdoor lighting standards adopted
as part of those plans.
c. Additions to buildings, parking
lots, and other site improvements approved before
December 4, 2006 shall be exempt from the lighting plan submittal requirements of subsection
29-30.1(f), provided the addition does not increase either the size of a building or parking lot
greater than fifty (50) percent of its existing gross floor area.
d. The addition of individual
lighting structures shall not require submittal of a lighting
plan provided the owner provides a certification that the additional
lighting structures conform
to the design criteria of this section, or the property owner obtains a special exception as
provided in Sec. 29-31(g).
e. This section shall not apply
to public street lighting.
f. Seasonal decorations that
include illuminated displays are exempt from this section
except that no light fixture that is part of a seasonal display shall be aimed or directed to create
glare or light spillage.
g. This section shall not apply
to the installation of an outdoor lighting structure if an
application for a building permit involving the installation of that structure was received by the
city on or before December 4, 2006.
(5) For enhanced security, only light sources with a
Color Rendering Index (CRI) of greater
than 60 shall be used. See Appendix A for CRI range of lamps.
(e) Methods of measurement:
(1) Unless otherwise specified, all footcandle values
shall be measured horizontally and shall
refer to maintained footcandles (initial values with a light loss ratio applied).
(2) Light spillage thresholds shall be determined by
horizontal footcandles measured at
ground level at the property line.
(3) Maximum height shall be measured as the vertical
distance between the finished grade
directly below a light fixture and the highest point on the light fixture.
(4) A light loss ratio of 0.72 shall be used to calculate
(5) Maximum-to-minimum is the highest horizontal illuminance
point divided by the lowest
horizontal illuminance point or area and should not be greater than the values shown.
(f) Photometric lighting plan requirements.
All applications for building permits
involving installation of outdoor lighting shall include the following information:
(1) A photometric plan, prepared by a lighting engineer
at a scale of no smaller than one (1)
inch equals sixty (60) feet which consists of:
a. An accurate site plan of the
proposed development indicating the location of property
lines, and all existing and proposed land improvements including but not limited to buildings,
parking lots, aisles and driveways, streets, walkways, landscaped areas and accessory structures;
b. The estimated footcandles
at ground level across the entire site, at minimum intervals of
thirty (30) feet, including estimated footcandles at the property line;
c. Location and type of all lighting
d. A table indicating the type,
light source, wattage, output in lumens, light loss ratio,
height of luminaires above grade and the maximum-to-minimum ratio. The maximum-to-minimum ratio shall
be calculated using 95% of the data point sources, excluding 2.5% of the
lowest values and 2.5% of the highest values; and
e. A certification by a lighting
engineer that the lighting plan complies with the standards
of this section. The director of public works or the director s designee may rely on this
certification for issuance of appropriate construction and occupancy permits.
(2) Manufacturer s catalogue specifications of
all luminaires to be used, indicating the
design, refractor (lens) type, cutoff angle (full, semi or non-cutoff), and any special features
affecting the performance of the light.
(g) Parking lot illumination. The following standards
apply to the illumination of parking
(1) Minimum lighting. During business hours, parking
lots shall be uniformly illuminated
such that vehicular license plates, addresses and directional, instructional or regulatory signs are
plainly visible without blind spots or excessive distortion of color. Minimum maintained
illuminance values are stated in Table 29-30.1(a).
(2) Lighting control. Lighting shall have automatic
controls capable of turning off lighting
when sufficient daylight is available or when the lighting is not required during nighttime hours.
Lighting not designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by an astronomical time
switch or time switch and photo sensor with the following exceptions:
a. Emergency lighting that is
automatically off during normal building operation;
b. Lighting that is specifically
designated as required by a health or life safety statute,
ordinance, or regulation; or
c. Decorative gas lighting systems.
(3) Maximum height. When non-cutoff light fixtures
are used, the height of the light
structure shall not exceed fifteen (15) feet above grade. When any other light fixtures are used,
the height of the light structure shall not exceed twenty-eight (28) feet above grade.
In a planned district, the City Council may allow up to thirty-five (35) feet maximum pole height
with a maximum base height of three (3) feet if the following criteria are met:
a. There is no residential zoning
within five hundred (500) feet of the parking lot
b. The buildings are configured
so that the lighting is shielded from the residential area.
c. The site is ten (10) acres
Where a taller base is required, the pole length shall
be decreased to prevent the luminaire s
light source from being more than thirty-eight (38) feet above grade.
(4) Building mounted parking lot lighting. Areas
of parking lots, circulation drives, loading
areas and drive-thru lanes located near the perimeter of a building may be illuminated by
building-mounted lights provided the design of the lights conform to the standards of this section
as documented in the lighting plan.
(5) The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property
is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for
Illuminance Values for Parking Lots*
Minimum Horizontal Illuminance 0.2
fc 0.5 fc
Maximum-to-Minimum Ratio 20:1 15:1
Minimum Vertical Illuminance 0.1
* Table taken from Lighting for Parking Facilities, Illuminating Engineering Society of
America, RP-20-98, p. 3.
(h) Service station canopy and apron lighting. The
following standards apply to gasoline
service stations in addition to the parking lot lighting regulations in Sec. 29-30.1(g).
(1) Glare minimization. To minimize glare, no drop, sag
or convex lenses shall be used on
lighting under the canopy unless the lenses are recessed within the canopy ceiling or shielded by
appropriate glare shields. No lighting shall be mounted on building or canopy fascias or rooftops
unless the fixtures are full cutoff. The intent is to keep all the light under the canopy. This
lighting shall be provided with low glare luminaires.
(2) The maximum average illuminance levels are set forth
in Table 29-30.1(b).
Service Station or Gas Pump Area Illuminance Levels
Area Description Maximum Average Illuminance on
Approach with Dark Surroundings 1.5
Driveway with Dark Surroundings 1.5
Pump Island Area with Dark Surroundings 5.0
Building Facades with Dark Surroundings 2.0
Service Areas with Dark Surroundings 2.0
Landscape Highlights with Dark Surroundings 1.0
Approach with Light Surroundings 2.0
Driveway with Light Surroundings 2.0
Pump Island Area with Light Surroundings 10.0
Building Facades with Light Surroundings 3.0
Service Areas with Light Surroundings 3.0
Landscape Highlights with Light Surroundings 2.0
* Table taken from Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended Practice,
RP-33-99, p. 43.
(i) Outdoor display area lighting. Illumination
of outdoor display areas for sale of
automobiles, recreational vehicles, and manufactured homes and other finished products
customarily displayed outdoors shall be permitted in accordance with Table 29-30.1(c) and with
(1) Maximum height of light fixtures same as parking
(2) Glare minimization. To minimize glare, no drop, sag
or convex lenses shall be used on
display-area lighting. Glare shields shall be used to eliminate visibility of the light source from
the public roadway.
(3) The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property
is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for
Illuminance Levels for
Outdoor Display Lighting
Area Maximum Illuminance Maximum-to-
on Pavement (Footcandles) Minimum Ratio
Adjacent to Roadway 10 20 5:1
Other Areas 5 10 10:1
Entrances 5 10 5:1
Driveways 2 3 10:1
*Table taken from Lighting for Exterior Environment: An IESNA Recommended Practice, RP-33-99,
(j) Building lighting. The following standards
apply to building lighting:
(1) Location and direction.
a. Building mounted lights shall
be mounted and installed so that all light is directed
downward, unless the lights are decorative lighting.
b. Fixtures shall be full cutoff
c. No wall packs or similar lights
shall be permitted unless the cutoff angle effectively
eliminates visible glare from beyond the property lines.
d. No light fixtures shall be
mounted above the parapet or, for pitched roofs, above the
eave except motion-detection security lighting, decorative lighting and accent lighting.
e. Functional lighting shall
not exceed 400 watts. Decorative or accent lighting shall not
exceed 100 watts.
f. The maximum footcandles allowed
on adjacent property is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for
g. The maximum average illuminance
levels for floodlighting buildings and monuments
are set forth in Table 29-30.1(d).
h. If swivel mountings are used,
lights may be raised a maximum of 20° from horizontal
and may not be mounted above the buildings and must be full cutoff fixtures.
(2) Decorative lighting. Decorative building lighting,
in which the purpose is enhancement
of building appearance, shall be permitted and may be directed toward the building, provided that
all light is cast against the building surface.
a. Lighting fixtures shall be
carefully located, aimed and shielded so that light is directed
only onto the building façade. Lighting fixtures shall not be directed toward adjacent streets
b. Lighting fixtures mounted
on the building and designed to wash the façade with light
Illuminance Levels for Floodlighting Buildings
Area Description Maximum Average Illuminance
Bright Surroundings and Light Surfaces 5
Bright Surroundings and Medium Light Surfaces 7
Bright Surroundings and Dark Surfaces 10
Dark Surroundings and Light Surfaces 2
Dark Surroundings and Medium Light Surfaces 3
Dark Surroundings and Medium Dark Surfaces 4
Dark Surroundings and Dark Surfaces 5
*Table taken from Lighting for Exterior Environments: An IESNA Recommended Practice,
RP-33-99, p. 30
(k) Landscape lighting. The following standards
apply to landscape lighting:
(1) Luminaires shall be mounted four (4) feet or lower
to the ground.
(2) The photometric plan shall show the location of all
landscape lighting fixtures and the
landscaping feature each fixture is to illuminate. The plan shall demonstrate that the installation
shall not generate excessive light levels, cause glare, or direct light beyond the landscaping into
the night sky.
(l) Athletic field and outdoor arena lighting. The
following standards apply to the
illumination of athletic fields and outdoor arenas:
(1) Minimum and maximum lighting. Athletic fields, where
nighttime activity is authorized,
shall provide adequate illumination for the scheduled activities. The minimum and maximum
light levels shall meet the standards for sports lighting set forth in Sports and Recreational
Lighting, RP-6-01, published by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
Lighting shall be cutoff standards so that light is primarily aimed at and directed to the activity
(2) Fixture height. Athletic field other than adult
baseball fields and arena lighting fixtures
shall not exceed seventy (70) feet above finished grade directly below the lighting fixture. Adult
baseball field lighting fixtures shall not exceed eighty (80) feet above finished grade directly
below the lighting fixture.
(3) Hours of operation. Lighting, except for lights
reasonably necessary for security
purposes, shall be turned off within two (2) hours
after the event or closure of the facility, or
when required by other regulatory ordinance. Dusk to dawn lights for security purposes shall not
emit visible glare from the perspective of adjacent properties, internal access aisles and public
(4) The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property
is 1.0 footcandle on residential
and 4.0 footcandles on non-residential.
(m) Private street lighting. Private street lighting
is permitted provided the fixtures, wattage
and output, fixture height, and spacing are comparable to the public street lighting standards set
forth in Secs. 27-146 through 27-151 of this code.
(n) Security lighting. The following standards
apply to security lighting:
(1) All security lighting fixtures shall be shielded
and aimed so that illumination is directed
only to the designated area and not cast on other areas. Lighting shall not be directed above
horizontal plane through the top of the lighting fixture, and the fixture shall include shields that
prevents the light source or lens from being visible from adjacent roadways and properties. The
use of general floodlighting fixtures is prohibited.
(2) The maximum footcandles allowed on adjacent property
is 0.5 for residential and 2.0 for
(o) Signs. Illumination of signs shall conform
to Chapter 23 of this code. Location of
illuminated signs and any lighting fixtures external to the signs shall be included on a lighting
Color Rendering Index Range of Lamps*
Lamp Type Color Rendering Index (CRI)
Lite White > 40
Warm White > 50
Warm White Deluxe > 70
Cool White > 60
Cool White Deluxe > 80
White > 60
Daylight > 70
T12 Rare Earth Phosphor > 69 to > 80
T8 Rare Earth Phosphor > 70 to > 90
Natural > 80
Incandescent > 80
Compact T4, T5 > 80
C50, C70, DSGN 50 > 90
Clear 15 25
Coated 40 to >50
Clear or Coated 60 > 90
High Pressure Sodium
Standard > 20
Color Improved > 60
High Color Rendering > 80
Low Pressure Sodium > 20
*Table is taken from Lighting for Parking Facilities, Report 20 98 of the Illuminating
Engineering Society of North America, 1998. For lamp types not listed above, the Manufacture
s CRI for the lamp can be used to determine if the lamp meets the standard of a CRI > 60.
SECTION 2. This ordinance shall be in full force and
effect from and after its passage.
PASSED this 4th day of December, 2006.